Exercise 1 Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper. A writer may cut and paste a passage from a website into her paper and later forget where the material came from. At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material.
Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. Some studies estimate that approximately 40 million Americans, or about 20 percent of the population, are attempting to restrict their intake of food high in carbohydrates Sanders and Katz, ; Hirsch, Restate it in different words that reflect the new perspective gained through your research.
Check original sources again to clear up any uncertainties. Working with Sources Carefully Disorganization and carelessness sometimes lead to plagiarism. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.
A study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of Make sure both your language and your sentence structure are original.
A writer who procrastinates may rush through a draft, which easily leads to sloppy paraphrasing and inaccurate quotations. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources.
A paper for a literature course analyzing several poems by Emily Dickinson A writing research paper rough draft for a political science course comparing televised speeches delivered by two presidential candidates A paper for a communications course discussing gender biases in television commercials A paper for a business administration course that discusses the results of a survey the writer conducted with local businesses to gather information about their work-from-home and flextime policies A paper for an elementary education course that discusses the results of an experiment the writer conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods of mathematics instruction For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus.
Here are a few examples: Sometimes I sing while I sob. When to Cite Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list. Although following a low-carbohydrate diet can benefit some people, these diets are not necessarily the best option for everyone who wants to lose weight or improve their health.
Secondary sources are one step removed from primary sources. Developmental science is common to least common across assessment methods of dynamic systems analysis requires analyzing this variability is prominent is emotional development.
Summary Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise.
For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. Write out of Order If you can't immediately think of the perfect way to hook your reader's attention, don't waste time staring at the blinking cursor on your computer screen.
These terms all boil down to its revenues minus explicit costs. This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers.
Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list at the end of your paper. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms.
A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. In your conclusion, you recap where they have been. As the name implies, a rough draft is a working copy of your paper that you'll later revise into a more polished final version.
Exercise 3 On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing. The body of the paper develops the thesis and related points with information from research.
Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way. Keep source materials and notes carefully organized.
A supply curve rightward. Employees may be fired for plagiarism and do irreparable damage to their professional reputation.
Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. These are valid reasons to use quotations.
Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase.
Summarizing and paraphrasing are usually most effective for this purpose. For academic purposes, however, the guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward.
Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite.Before you begin to write your research paper rough draft, you have some decisions to make about format, or how your paper will look.
As you write, you have to think about presenting your ideas in a way that makes sense and holds your readers’ interest. This is “Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper”, section from the book Successful Writing (v. ). For details on it (including licensing), click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa license.
Research Paper: Write a First Draft. Every essay or paper is made up of three parts: introduction body conclusion; The introduction is the first paragraph of the paper.
Step 9: Research Paper Rough Draft. Now that you've completed your outline and have found plenty of scholarly sources to back up the points you intend to make, the time has come to hunker down and crank out the first draft of your essay.
This is the phase of writing where you will sink the most time and effort into your work. This is “Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper”, section from the book Successful Writing (v.
). For details on it (including licensing), click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa license. Your ultimate goal may be to get an "A" on your paper, but even the best writing begins with raw material. Rather than aiming high on your rough draft, use it as an opportunity to explore, organize and structure your thoughts into paragraphs.Download